The Problem

The Cytostatic Drugs (CDs), able to inhibit cell division, are characterized as low biodegradability and high persistence in surface waters.

Low concentrations of CDs have been found (from ng L-1 to μ L-1) in waters of Spain, Austria, Switzerland, France, Slovenia, Portugal, Italy, United Kingdom and China.

The long term effects of low-dosage exposure are undertermined.
Fundamentally, there are three main ways of transferrins CDs to the surface water:

– WWTP or domestic dwellings, intact or metabolized.

– Hospitals.

– Manufacturing plants producing the active substances.